8th Annual International Translation Conference Panels

Zafer Tuhaitah
University of Leeds,UK

Women, Cars and Ideologies: The Socio-dynamics of Cross-Linguistic Representations of the Saudi Human Rights Discourse

Human rights discourse is an underresearched topic in translation studies, especially in the Arab World. Since the ‘Arab Spring’ of 2011, human rights discourse has gained great momentum (Ishay, 2013). One of the most controversial human rights issues in Saudi Arabia is the women’s rights movement in Saudi Arabia. This paper focuses on the case of Loujain Al-Hathloul, a Saudi female activist who was jailed for driving her car (Dearden, 2015). This case has been confronted with several internal ideological conflicts, where human rights discourse was demonized by a large section of the Saudi community. Various international political actors have exploited the same case for different ideological reasons.

The main tool to witness and construct such ideological conflicts has been the media. This paper analyses how ideology influences the representation of human rights discourse in the news between Arabic and English languages in this context. The corpus used in this study contains news reports both in Arabic and English on the case of Loujain Al-Hathloul obtained from two ideologically conflicting news agencies, namely: Al Arabiya (from Saudi Arabia); and Al-Alam (from Iran). The selected methodological framework used in this study is a modified version of Fairclough’s three-dimensional model of Critical Discourse Analysis (1989, 1992, 1995). The study covers the question of ideological influence by analyzing different levels of analysis such as the translation shifts and editing that occur at the lexical and grammatical levels; the visual semiotics; the historical, social and political contexts; and the discursive strategies applied to report the same story in different news agencies.

This paper sets to extend our knowledge of the current issues in news translation in the Arab World. It also attempts to go some way towards enhancing our understanding of the influence of ideology on the media discourse and the way it is used as a political tool.

References:

Dearden, L. (2015). Saudi Arabian woman jailed for defying driving ban to run in elections after ban overturned. The Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/saudi-arabian-woman-loujain-al-hathloul-jailed-for-defying-driving-ban-to-run-in-elections-after-ban-a6768256.html
Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. London: Longman.
Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.
Ishay, M. (2013). The spring of Arab nations? Paths toward democratic transition. Philosophy.

Hanem El-Farahaty
University of Leeds,UK

Translating Political Satire of the Egyptian Revolution into English

Whereas studies of Arabic political satire are scarce there has been a phenomenal growth in this activity in recent times. Political satire has tackled many social and political issues in the Arab World. The Arab Spring of 2011 gripped the entire Middle East with Egypt witnessing the emergence of a unique interface between political cartoons and comics and Egyptian cinema and theatre that even extended to singing. This connection is something that makes them extremely interesting to follow and read. On the other hand, the connection is culture-bound, making them unusually challenging to translate. This challenge stems from reference to scenes in Egyptian Colloquial Arabic films, plays and songs that are loaded with social, religious and other culture-bound elements that require in depth knowledge and an ability to make a connection between these references and the element of political satire in question. Hence biculturalism, to borrow Nida’s (2001:82) term will be more important than bilingualism.

This presentation discusses the challenges of translating Arabic political satire of the Egyptian revolution into English over the course of the past five years. This period covers three stages in Egyptian politics from the ousting of Mubarak, to the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood and their eventual overthrow culminating in the subsequent election of Abdul Fattah el-Sisi as Egypt’s new president. The paper adopts a multimodal approach (Kress, 2009) to analyse the intertextuality between the different elements of the image, how each element contributes to meaning conveyed and how none of them could be ignored or underestimated in the process of translation.

Asmaa Alduhaim
University of Birmingham

Cross-Cultural Political Discourse Translation: A Comparative Study of Different Translations of the Arab Spring Presidential Speeches

In the contemporary globalized world, where translation plays a key role in creating a transcultural understanding, many events are broadcast through various media in different languages. During the past few years, political conflicts and clashes have increased in the Middle East, and a wave of demonstrations forced presidents to react and address the nation in several speeches. This research is focused on Mummar Algaddafi’s speech, which was delivered on February 22nd, 2011, and Hosni Mubarak’s speech dated February 10th, 2011. In the first part of the research, I will conduct a comparative study of the source texts (STs), including a textual/contextual analysis drawing on Fairclough’s (Fairclough, 1995) critical discourse analysis, and Kress’s multimodal semiotic analysis (Kress, 2010). The second part is concerned with a detailed analysis of three different genres of translations of each speech, by applying a combined model of CDA and Kress’s approach to analyze both the linguistic and extra-linguistic features. In addition to Baker’s narrative approach (Baker, 2006), which aims to reveal how selective apportion feature is employed by most news agencies to reshape their translation into a new narrative that suits their ideology. The research intends to shed light on the way in which the change in genre between the ST and TT is reflected in the purpose of the text; for example considering changes that occur to a political, motivating, maybe even threatening speech when it turns into a neutral article, a piece of news or a commentary in an online blog. Thus, by changing the mode of delivery the translation process may inadvertently change the meaning, genre and the ideological/discursive context. The research will also highlight the importance of multimodality in the translation process, which reveals the importance of rendering the image, body language and the setting of the speech to the TT audience.

Bibliography:

Baker, M. (1992). In Other Words: A course book on translation. London: Routledge.
Baker, M. (ed.) (1998). The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Translation Studies. London: Routledge.
Baker, M. (2006). Translation and conflict: A narrative account. Routledge.
Bazzi, S. (2009) Arab News and Conflict: A Multi-Disciplinary Discourse Study. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Chilton, P. & Schaffner. C. (1997). Discourse and Politics, In Discourse as Social Interaction. London: Sage Publications.
Chilton, P. & Schaffner. C. (eds). (1999). Politics as Text and Talk: Analytic Approaches to Political Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Fairclough, N. (1992) Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Fairclough, N. (1995) Critical Discourse Analysis: The critical study of language. London, UK: Longman.
Fairclough, N. (2001) Language and Power. London, UK: Longman.
Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality. A social semiotic approach to contemporary
Communication London: Routledge Falmer.

Adila Benaouda
Algiers 2 University (Algeria)

Translating political cartoon in time of Arab wars/conflicts

Translators play a major role in providing non-Arabs with information, whether through interpreting and translating content or otherwise. They act as intermediaries between the source of information and its recipients.

Media translation, in general, is divided into audio visual and written-text translation; the latter includes the translation of articles, press headlines and political caricature. In this paper we will focus on the translation of political caricature. The evaluation of this type of translation during wars and conflicts in the Arab World indicates that there is an imbalance between the content transferred from and into Arabic. The shortage of translations in the Arab world contributes to the formation of a “communication gap" between the Arab world and the "Other"

The Western public has no access to the Arab news since few of them can read Arabic. Also only a small portion of the Arabic press is indeed translated into foreign languages, and when translated it is mostly done by outsiders whose interests differ from those of the parent institution itself.  Consequently, the Western public tends to form their judgments and perceptions on the Arab World based on the images broadcast on Western television channels, or through the analyses they are exposed to in the Western press whether these are accurate or misleading.

Moreover, Arabs have failed to inform the Western public about the reality and attitude of the Arab people, as well as to render an objective representation addressing this audience as a way to redress these incorrect judgments and perceptions, except for the content issued by some media organizations, journalists and researchers.

Through the examples that we will present in this paper, we will notice that most of the cartoons transferred feed into anti-America and anti-west sentiments. The analysis will show that cartoons do not necessarily need an accompanying text in order to perceive their meanings except in some cases that require captions to avoid ambiguity.  However, it has been noted that many additions were conducted by translators who generate translated titles for cartoons not accompanied by a caption.  In other cases, translators resorted to composing a text serving as a caption to accompany cartoons.

Benoit Leger
Concordia University in Montreal, Canada

“My interpreter”: Journalists and the Invisibility of Fixers

This paper will analyze two visions of the role of the fixer—the amateur or professional interpreter working alongside foreign journalists, mostly in conflict zones. Canadian journalist Graeme Smith and British reporter Robert Fisk have covered the Middle East during military operations and wars, especially in Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq, relying to various extents on the ability of local fixers to convey information in their articles published in Western newspapers. The ways in which these two journalists describe the role, function, and even appearance of their fixers differ broadly: one journalist insisting on the presence of his fixer, described as a collaborator and almost as a mother figure, the other one barely mentioning the need for language mediation, even in situations where he obviously do not master the langue. The confrontation of these two description of contacts between languages will shed light on how the importance of interpretation in conflict zones is perceived, on the fiction of communication without language borders and, more broadly, on the recognition of the role of fixers within the realm of journalism.

Lamya Khelil
University of Boumerdes, Algeria

The Role of Translators in Transmitting "Semiotics" to Arabic in the Modern Era

The study of "signs" or "semiotics" was an interesting and intriguing field to the ancient Arab scholars; so much so that they outrivaled the West in some aspects, such as those related to semantics. Ancient Arab scholars left behind a significant legacy in this area, particularly represented by their knowledge of the literature on semantics. One of the features of the semiotics of that era is that it permeated the different levels of Arabic such as morphology, grammar, semantics, interpreting and the Qur'an. Among the prominent scholars in this field was Al-Jāhiz who researched non-linguistic signs, though he favored linguistic signs, Al Jurjani, who preceded de Saussure in considering the linguistic sign arbitrary, and Avicenna, who was concerned with the components of semantics including "reference", "acoustic sign" and "meaning".

Currently, these parameters have completely changed, thanks to the Arab translators who helped transmitting most of the developments in this field from the West, especially the European School, led by de Saussure and Grimas, and the American School, led by Morris and Boris.

Our study falls within the scope of the continuity of research in the field of translation, and in particular the role of translators in transmitting the elements of Western semiotics renaissance into the Arabic language. The main objective of this research is to unveil the pioneering role played by Arab translators in transmitting semiotics from the West.  To achieve the objective of our study, we will address the following questions:

  • How did translators play an active role in transmitting modern Western semiotics into Arabic?
  • Who are the translators who initiated the current translation activity?
  • What are the prospects and challenges of translating the content of semiotics into Arabic?  

In order for us to answer these questions, we have employed a number of methodological approaches. In this context our study is considered a historical narrative par excellence, taking us back to the early translated content into Arabic in the field of semiotics. Our study also illustrates the realities and challenges of the translation of this complex field into Arabic.

Muhammad Gamal
Audiovisual Translation consultant, Sydney-Australia

Audiovisual Translation in the Arab World v.06 (The Literature Review)

Audiovisual Translation Studies, as an academic discipline sui generis in Arabic, is on the rise, albeit slowly. There is, however, an emerging body of literature that examines various aspects of audiovisual translation. The paper reports on reviewing this literature with the aim of identifying the theoretical underpinnings that not only govern the research methodology but also situate Audiovisual Translation Studies as a discipline sui generis in Arabic. The literature reviewed for this study is made up of doctoral thesis (7), master thesis (16), journal articles (7), encyclopedia entries (1) as well as peer reviews (11).

The paper follows a pattern adopted by the author in which he takes a global view of audiovisual translation studies in the Arab world and produces an industry-­‐focused study that aims to link policy to practice. This ‘annual’ research adopts a theme that focuses on a particular issue within the overall examination of the professional context of audiovisual translation in the Arab world. Previous versions of this ongoing research examined AVT as an emerging field (2007), the AVT situation in Egypt (2008), Monitoring the progress of AVT in Arabic (2013), Mapping the field (2014) and the 20th Anniversary of AVT (2015).

AVT v.07 looks at Audiovisual Translation Pedagogy in Arab academia (2017). The significance of this research lies in its precedence and relevance. AVT v.06 “The Review of the Literature” reveals that twenty years after the emergence of audiovisual translation as an academic discipline in the west, most Arab efforts to localize AVT studies continue to face major hurdles at the policy, pedagogy and practice levels.

Chinni Kumar Nandi
University of Hyderabad, India

The Issues and Challenges of Translating Non Verbal Communication on Screen

Non Verbal Communication indicate different channels of communication which differs from country to country. The postures, gestures, clothing, adapters (tapping, scratching, touching etc.), symbolic movements (Saying, bye, thumbs up, Hello, raised fist) etc. Any literary text can be translated into any language. Any dialogue, speech or sound on screen had been translated into different languages through modes of dubbing and subtitling. The Actors/ characters nonverbal expressions on screen were never given importance. The audio video translation of nonverbal communication is a serious challenge which needs to be addressed. While translating films, there is a necessity to address the nonverbal communication to understand the language and culture transfer of the particular film.  The present paper inquiries and investigates, how a non-verbal communication, can be translated on screen?  Is there was any history of translation of non-verbal communication? Is it possible to translate the non-verbal communication on screen? What is the significance of non-verbal communication translation on screen? Is it necessary to translate the non-verbal communication on screen? What are the issues and challenges of translation of non-verbal communication?

David Orrego-Carmona
Aston University (UK) & University of the Free State (South Africa)

Translation Studies (and the translation profession) as Enlarged by non-professional Translation

Non-professional subtitling brings end users into the picture as active users, prosumers. In this scenario, the audience itself is in charge of producing translations, instead of having an external agent translating for them (Cronin 2012). The democratization of technology has brought with it an enlargement of translation as a social activity: people from all around the world have become engaged with non-professional translation activities and translation in itself has become more social. Non-professional translations range from pure entertainment to social commitment and activism, and aim at increasing social inclusiveness. By challenging the status quo of an already underestimated profession, non-professional translation faces challenges and resistance, mainly from the professional practitioners and particularly from the West. However, the activity of non-professional translators can help us understand the new roles that translation plays in the 21st century.

This paper reviews a series of studies that explore the production and reception of non-professional subtitles to comprehensively discuss the implications of non-professional translation for Translation Studies. Using different approaches and methodologies, the studies have shown that non-professional subtitling communities have production processes similar to those of professional subtitlers (Orrego-Carmona 2016) and that these communities develop hierarchical structures, regardless of the goal of maintaining horizontal organization systems (Pym et al. 2016). Findings also indicated that, in terms of reception, non-professional subtitles can be as good as professional subtitles (Orrego-Carmona 2015) and that the increased access to them might be changing the audiences’ consumption habits (Orrego-Carmona 2014).

This overview of empirical research on non-professional subtitling sets the tone for a timely debate regarding the translation profession. What is the role of non-professional translators in the global informal economy and in developmental contexts? What are the implications that empowered technologized audiences have on translation? What about translator training institutions facing the reality of alternative training setups for translators? The consequences of these issues for translation have to be analyzed under different frameworks since they will undoubtedly vary given the different conditions in Western and non-Western countries. Non-professional translation activities have the potential to highlight the different faces that translation can take around the world.

Publication bibliography:

Cronin, Michael (2012): Translation in the digital age. London, New York: Routledge.
Orrego-Carmona, David (2014): Subtitling, video consumption and viewers: The impact of the young audience. In Translation Spaces 3, pp. 51–70. DOI: 10.1075/ts.3.03orr.
Orrego-Carmona, David (2015): The reception of (non)professional subtitling. Unpublished PhD thesis. Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Orrego-Carmona, David (2016): Internal structures and workflows in collaborative subtitling. In Rachele Antonini, Chiara Bucaria (Eds.): Non-professional Interpreting and Translation in the Media: Peter Lang, pp. 211–230.
Pym, Anthony; Orrego-Carmona, David; Torres-Simón, Esther (2016): Status and technology in the professionalization of translators. Market disorder and the return of hierarchy. In JoSTrans, The Journal of Specialised Translation (25), pp. 33–53. Available online at http://www.jostrans.org/issue25/art_pym.php.

Jean Nitzke
Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz Germany

Problem solving in translation from scratch and post-editing

The need for translations has been growing in recent years despite financial crises. To cope with the need, international companies and organisations have started to implement machine translation (MT) into their translation workflows. However, MT output does often not meet the quality expectations, especially when the text needs to be published or distributed. Hence, translators are needed to improve the MT output. This process is called post-editing. Translation processes often include problem-solving activity. When the translation of the source is not obvious to the translator on first sight, or in other words when there is a barrier between the source item and the target item, the translation process can be considered problematic. Using MT output for translation tasks should provide advantages in efficiency and reduce problem-solving effort. However, if the quality of the MT output is not acceptable, new problematic translation units may arise.  In a series of experiments, 24 translators (twelve professionals and twelve semi-professionals) produced translations from scratch, post-edited and monolingually post-edited MT output. The translation and editing sessions were recorded with an eye-tracker (Tobii TX300) and a keylogging program (Translog II). Altogether, the translators had to handle six texts (two texts per task). For the post-editing tasks, the texts were pre-translated using Google Translate.  Keylogging and eye-tracking data were analysed for different problem indicators as well as problem-solving strategies in the translation and the post-editing tasks. The analyses show for example that the MT output solved some lexical problems the participants had in translation from scratch, but increases syntactical problems which arise in translation from scratch. This talk will present specific problems of English-German MT output, which, however, can be transferred to other language combinations, as well. Finally, this talk will draw a comprehensive picture on challenges and advantages of post-editing MT output.

Julian Zapata
University of Ottawa, Canada

Preparing Translators and Interpreters for a New Translator-Computer and Translator-Information Interaction Era: Lessons from Interactive Translation Dictation

Technologies have been a part of the translation and interpretation landscape for a number of decades, and have inexorably modified the way these professions are perceived, taught and practiced. Translation and interpretation researchers, trainers and professionals are aware of the need not only to efficiently integrate new technologies to education programs, but also to improve existing tools and to create new ones to cope up with the evolution of computers and the changing needs and preferences of humans in terms of creating, storing, accessing and using information. My presentation will explore interactive translation dictation (ITD) from a pedagogical perspective. ITD is an emerging translation technique that involves interaction with multimodal interfaces (MIs) equipped with voice recognition (VR) technology throughout the entire translation process. Examples of commercially available MIs include smartphones, tablets and touchscreen computers, which are primarily voice-and-touch-enabled. ITD has a demonstrated potential to become one of the most efficient, cost-effective and ergonomic modi operandi in the near future for translation and interpretation professionals, but significant technical and pedagogical challenges still need to be addressed. In this presentation, I will first describe the evolution of VR technology and the extent to which it has been explored and used in translation practice and teaching in recent years. Secondly, some of the current challenges and limitations of this technology will be described while lending support to the idea of integrating sight translation, translation dictation and VR courses to translator and interpreter training programs as a partial solution to the challenges (Gouadec 2007; Mees et al. 2013; Zapata & Quirion, in press). To wrap up my talk, I will present and discuss, from a pedagogical perspective, some results of a recent empirical study on ITD carried out within the framework of my doctorate in translation studies, and will outline avenues for future research.

Samuel Läubli
University of Zürich- Switzerland

Beyond post-editing: The future of computer-aided translation

As research on machine translation progresses rapidly, computer-aided translation protocols such as post-editing are becoming a reality rather than a choice for professional translators. However, the fact that current protocols often impose ill-formed machine output on professionals led to a paradox situation: translators disfavour them despite increased productivity (Green et al., 2013).  In this talk, I will argue for a paradigm shift in computer-aided translation. Translators should be enabled to request machine translations of individual words or phrases as they see fit rather than being presented with entirely pre-translated segments by default. Motivations are drawn from practical experience implementing post-editing workflows in the automotive and software localisation industries, as well as recent findings in translation process research (Läubli and Germann, 2016). I will present prototype implementations including empirical evaluation of the aforementioned protocols for mixed-initiative translation, pointing out the importance of an optimal interplay between what translators see (user interfaces) and what machines produce in the background (translation algorithms). I hope to elicit feedback and critical comments to adapt and refine the presented approach going forward, particularly from non-Western language professionals who have too often been neglected in designing computer-aided translation workflows and technology so far.

References:

Green, Spence, Jeffrey Heer, and Christopher D. Manning. The efficacy of human post-editing for language translation. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 439–448. ACM, 2013.
Läubli, Samuel, and Ulrich Germann. 2016. Läubli, Samuel, and Ulrich Germann. Statistical modelling and automatic tagging of human translation processes. In New Directions in Empirical Translation Process Research, pages 155–181. Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Volga Yılmaz Gümüş
Anadolu University, Turkey

The Representation of the Translator in the 21st-Century Turkish Literature

Recent years have seen an increasing academic interest in translation as a profession, probably as a result of the increasing interest in the profession with the growing need for translation – the market factor on one hand, and the influence of sociological approaches in Translation Studies that focus on the “human” factor in translation act – the research factor on the other hand. However, translation as a profession has also been a topic of interest in character construction in the literature for long years. Based on contemporary Turkish novels, this study explores the role, identity and status of fictional translators in Turkish novels published in the 21st century, and seeks an answer to the question how translators are represented in the 21st-century novel? Data is collected from five Turkish novels, where a translator is the primary character or one of secondary characters. It is important that the events in the novel also takes place in the 21st century, so that we can have some insight into contemporary representation and perception of translators in the literature. We then use the forms of capital defined by Bourdieu to interpreter the status of translators in Turkey, based on data collected from the contemporary Turkish novel. The results of this study will help us get understanding of perceived social, cultural and psychological condition of translators.

Mutsuko Tsuboi
Juntendo University, Japan

Inventing the Japanese as a nation: Role of translation and translators in the modernization of Japan in the late 19th century

This study focuses on the term minzoku, which was created as a translation of “nation” in the Meiji Era (1868–1912), to explore the process of generating a new concept through translation. It elucidates its influence on shaping nihon-jin, which refers to Japanese people, as a nation. Through an analysis of the usages of minzoku in texts, including newspapers, magazines, and other literatures, by intellectuals who were involved in translation in the late 19th century, this study examines the aspects of conceptualizing minzoku and its expansion throughout Japan in socio-cultural and historical contexts. Finally, the author revisits the role of translation and translators in Japan’s modernization.

The Meiji Era and Japan’s road to modernization began with the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. This period led to Japan’s transformation from a feudal society into a modern nation-state. Growing aware of the threat of Western domination in East Asia, the political leaders and scholars found it crucial to learn about the West, and translating Western literature became a project of national importance. However, they confronted complex tasks of translating completely unfamiliar notions rooted in Western history and society into the context of deeply Confucian-influenced traditions of Japan. To represent Western notions, many new terms were coined as kanji (Chinese characters) compounds, one of which was minzoku. The analysis shows that the process of creation and conceptualization of minzoku was highly influenced by the emergence of the German Empire under the Prussian king, uniting Germany as a nation-state. The acquisition of the new concept played a significant role in identifying Japanese people, nihon-jin, as a nation and prepared the ideological foundation of strengthening the imperial regime and the subsequent Japan’s imperialistic expansion.

Abdullah Bin Sirjan
King Fahd School of Translation, Morocco

Taha Abdul Rahman: a Theorist of Philosophical Translation

Philosophy is considered one the most important areas of inquiry that examine humankind, its existence and its relations with its surroundings, and with other humans, while translation is the most expressive form of communication and acculturation among people and nations since ancient times. Combining the two under the name of “philosophical translation” is of paramount epistemological significance and procedural effectiveness in order to escape the "ontological predicament" and to renew the channels of communication and networking with a view to opening new horizons for human coexistence away from violence and extremism in all form.

From this perspective, this study came in the form of an approach to the theory of philosophical translation for the Moroccan philosopher Taha Abdul Rahman, who established philosophical translation as a fundamental element for his project based on the right to cultural and intellectual difference. We will outline how Taha Abdul Rahman perceives philosophical translation, and aspects of novelty and excellence in his approach where translation reached an astounding levels of true creativity and acculturation.

Addressing the issue of translation within the paradigm of Taha is characterized by the duality of its method because it is based on constructive criticism and re-institution. It also deals with two main fronts: reviewing philosophy and criticizing modernity. For these considerations, we decided to divide this research paper into three main sections, preceded by an introduction outlining the characteristics of Taha Abdul Rahman’s philosophical model, as can be seen below:

Introduction:

This introductory section exposes the intellectual paradigm of Taha Abdul Rahman's, by focusing on its dimensions of divergence and creativity. This would confirm that philosophical translation is considered as the cornerstone and kernel element of this model, which purports to build a human space inclusive for everyone, whose language hinges on difference, communication and creativity.

Section 1: Philosophical Translation as a manifestation of the right to difference:
In this section we will try to approach the translation act, in terms of being a manifestation of the right to intellectual difference and acculturation and in the context of reviewing philosophy and criticizing modernity.

Section 2: Philosophical translation as a moral obligation targeting innovation and creativity:
In this section we will highlight the characteristics of creativity, originality and excellence in the paradigm of Taha Abdul Rahman.

Section 3: Types of philosophical translations:
We will expose the types of philosophical translation developed by Taha Abdel-Rahman, showing the aspects of correlation involving such types.

Anna Ponomareva
CenTraS, UCL, UK

The Creative Impulse of Two Scheherazades

In the last fifty years at least three scholarly works have been published in which the issue of an intersemiotic translation has been discussed. They are by Jakobson (1959), Douglas Hofstadter (1997) and Anthony Pym (2010). The aim of my presentation is to develop this issue and provide further evidence of the importance of this type of translation in spreading the cultural information of the other in order to create a better understanding among peoples. The focus of my paper is on the analysis of multi-modal intersemiotic translations of The Thousand and One Nights such as Rimskiy-Korsakov’s symphonic suite (1888) and one of Diaghilev’s ballet Russes (1910) both called Scheherazade. It will be shown how these two artistic projects have influenced the perception of the Orient in the West at the turn of the 20th century and might be responsible for the growth of general public interests in the culture of the East at that time.  Rimskiy-Korsakov’s and Diaghilev’s projects can be classifies as the ones in which an exotic foreignization has been used. However, it will be emphasised that a century ago this type of foreignization was necessary in order to attract the attention of people living in the West and inviting them to look at the Orient differently by studying its literature and culture. This presentation is a continuation of my research on drawing parallels between music and literature and looking at a number of texts which might be classified as their transmutations in music (Ponomareva 2007, 2012). 

Marlie van Rooyen
University of the Free State, South Africa

Community Media in South Africa: Translation as tool for Development

Community media plays a crucial role as tool in development processes, especially in the global South. In South Africa, community media has a specific development mandate regarding social, human and economic development priorities (Mkonza, 2004: 117). For community radio in specific to serve as a vehicle for development, radio programming and news should be relevant to the needs of the specific community concerned – also in terms of broadcast language. Reporting news in South African community radio occurs in highly multilingual settings with some radio stations broadcasting in up to seven languages to serve the community. The effect of such multilingualism implies some form of translational activity, although journalists do not necessarily recognise the importance or even presence of translation in the news production process. This implies a need for investigation into the complexity of the process, going beyond the linguistic nature of news translation (cf. Van Doorslaer, 2010; Bassnett, 2005).   Due to the role and the situation of the translation practices in these settings, it is necessary for a project of this nature to rely on a conceptual framework that allows the identification of the emergence of translation. The aim is to go beyond investigations into the translation as product to investigate issues of the social, which in this case would include both human and nonhuman actors involved in the daily news translation production practices in community radio. Bruno Latour’s actor-network theory (2005) is applied as methodological tool to investigate these in situ translation practices. Drawing on examples from radio stations in the Free State province, this paper aims to describe and explain the news translation production process; the situational translation practices and activities; and the actors (whether human or non-human) involved in the news production process.

References:

Bassnett, S. 2005. Bringing the news back home: Strategies of acculturation and foreignisation. Language and Intercultural Communication 5(2):120–130.
Latour, B. 2005. Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Mkonza, K. 2004. Community media and the MDDA. Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies 25(1):115–118.
Van Doorslaer, L. 2010. The double extension of translation in the journalistic field. Across Languages and Cultures 11(2):175–188.

Muman Saleh
University of Birmingham, UK

The Role of Interpreters in Influencing Narratives of the Libyan Conflict

The need for interpreters as the mediators who overcome language barriers in war zones has increased significantly over years. This is because even local conflicts between monolingual sides within a specific territory are given a global nature in the political scene. During the Libyan uprising in 2011, the Libyan interpreters of the pro-rebels side sought to appeal the international intervention by trying to influence narratives of the conflict during their involvement as language mediators. The focus of this study is on narratives interpreted by Libyan interpreters only within the pro-rebels side, with an analysis restricted to the period from February 17th, 2011 to March 19th, 2011. This study aims to explore the influential role the Libyan interpreters had played in shaping narratives of the Libyan conflict. It intends to illustrate how interpreters’ intervention helped to change the reality and shaped the narratives of the conflict as they wished for.   The research method used in this study is a survey of a multi-method approach represented in distributing a questionnaire and conducting interviews with Libyan interpreters who had operated there. The theoretical framework for this study is based on emerging both features of narrativity from Somers & Gibson (1993: 59) as well as interpreters influence in shaping narratives of the war (Baker 2010: 213-217). The data are analysed using Baker's model of framing narratives in translation. The findings of the study show that interpreters play a major role in conflict zones by their ability to change the narrative through the interpreting process by their own version of it.

Bibliography:

Baker, M. (2006). Translation and conflict: A narrative account, Routledge.
________ (2007). Reframing conflict in translation. Social Semiotics, 17(2), 151-169.
________ (2010). Interpreters and translators in the war zone: Narrated and narrators. The Translator, 16(2), 197-222.
Harding, S. A. (2012). “How do I apply narrative theory?”: Socio-narrative theory in translation studies. Target, 24(2), 286-309.
Somers, M. R. & GIBSON, G. D. (1993). Reclaiming the epistemological other: narrative and the social constitution of identity.

Muhammad Vasil
University of Hyderabad, India

Driving to interpret; a case study of Arab interpreters in Kerala

This paper tries to look into how the taxi drivers in Cochin a city located in central part of Kerala, India write a different history of interpretation as being the Arabic interpreters for the Arab tourists who visit Kerala. These drivers cum interpreters work in collaboration with different tour agencies mostly accommodating Arab tourists, speak different Arabic dialects very fluently. Though there are thousands of gulf returned people in Kerala these Gulf returned drivers capitalise what they gained meanwhile their stay in a foreign country in more productive way and to contribute in the growing economy of Kerala.  The questions which this paper address is that how this taxi drivers subvert the idea of elite notion of interpretation and make it a more popular art and profession. similarly how this profession can accommodate more gulf returned people in a creative arena.  This study will also look into the contribution of these interpreters in a post-colonial economy.  Wherein how Muslim community sustained themselves and built a strong economic capital aftermath of gulf migration when they were largely side-lined by the state missionaries. In which the Arabic learned scholars and translators had played a crucial role in making strong cultural and strong economic link between people in gulf and Kerala Muslims. This paper also tries to look into how the gulf migration is challenging the notion of nation through building a relation beyond boundaries, wherein the language and religion is vital.

KAYO MATSUSHITA
International Christian University in Tokyo, Japan

Corpus-based Research Utilizing Interpreter mediated Press Conferences in Japan

One of the biggest obstacles in Interpreting Studies has been the lack of analyzable authentic data that contains details of interpreting performances which cannot be obtainable by controlled experiments alone. In order to overcome such obstacles, attempts have been made to make use of recordings in real-life situations to build parallel corpora with original speeches as source texts and outputs by the interpreters as target texts. However, such attempts have traditionally been made in Europe where abundant data from international organizations have been made available (e.g. European Parliament Interpreting Corpus or EPIC).   The uniqueness of the current study lies in the fact that it utilizes 300 hours’ worth of English and Japanese speech data obtained from interpreter-mediated press conferences held at the Japan National Press Club over the past five-plus years. A four-year, seven-member project is ongoing funded by the Japanese Government to create a parallel corpus between English and Japanese, the first of its kind in size and the authenticity of the data collected. The dataset includes both simultaneous and consecutive interpreting performances by highly-trained professionals between English and Japanese.   Not only does the corpus combine video footages, audio recordings and transcribed texts, but it also includes waveforms of English and Japanese renderings along with matching texts word by word, utilizing ELAN, a tool for creating complex annotations of video and audio resources. The data created by ELAN is transformed into a text-based corpus using YAWAT browser which allows for any kind of corpus-based analysis at the textual level. It is hoped that the creation of such a comprehensive, authentic and dynamic corpus will enable empirical testing of various hypothesis still waiting to be corroborated and confirmed scientifically in Interpreting Studies and beyond, and to expand the horizon of research in this field to non-European language pairs.

Julie Boéri,
University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France

Analysing change within citizen spaces: the case of Babels

Translation constitutes a critical link for the construction of civic engagement within transnational social movements, be it in the construction of collective identity, of collective action or of a common space.

This presentation will focus on the organizational and communicational platforms (both digital and non-digital) deployed by three social initiatives that are interconnected within a large social movement where translation has always played a crucial role: (a) the alterglobalization movement, born in the 90s so as to oppose corporate-led globalization, (b) the World Social Forum, an international, periodic and itinerant gathering of social movements founded in Porto Alegre (Brazil) in 2001 and (c) Babels, the international network of volunteer translators and interpreters, born in 2002, so as to inscribe language diversity at the heart of social change called for by both the Social Forum and the alterglobalization movement. These three initiatives are linked together by a common challenge, that of facilitating communication among social actors who attempt to construct alternatives to mainstream society, beyond language, cultural, thematic, organizational and technological barriers. The three initiatives are underpinned by three dialectics: deliberation / struggle, participation / representation and process / event. These have been identified after a literature review on Social Forums, traced in the discourses and practices within the Babels network, through an ethnographic study which I have conducted over the last 10 years. Structured around these three dialectics, my presentation will report on the results of this study and will put forward a methodology which draws on narratives and on the Foucauldian concept of dispositif (apparatus), for exploring change within citizen spaces. 

Henry Jones,
University of Manchester, UK

Wikipedia and Its Not-so-collaborative Volunteer Translation Networks

Much of the current discussion of translation and citizen media tends to focus on what brings individuals together to volunteer their time and effort when collaborating on citizen-led projects. Scholars such as Baker (2013) and Pérez-González (2010), for instance, have drawn attention to the shared sense of narrative affinity that binds engaged translator collectives and the specific political or aesthetic goals that these groups aim to achieve through their mediation activity.

The case of collaborative translation in the context of the user-generated encyclopedia Wikipedia however offers an alternative perspective on this co-production process. While Wikipedians are for the most part united in their belief that knowledge is free and committed in their desire to create an openly accessible knowledge resource, there is rarely absolute consensus on what knowledge should and should not be included, and how this task might best be approached. When collecting and collating the information required to produce their target-language texts, translator-contributors argue, often bitterly, over the ways in which the challenges posed by the linguistic and cultural heterogeneity of human knowledge should be tackled. Wikipedia can thus clearly be seen as a translation site in which individuals compete at least as much as they collaborate, in which they push against each other just as much as they pull together. This presentation will demonstrate how the complex negotiations that occur within this environment are most productively explained and explored by combining a socio-narrative based approach to the study of translation (Baker 2006) with the spatial mode of analysis encouraged by Michel Foucault’s (1984/1986) concept of ‘heterotopia’. In doing so, I will attempt to provide insights into a process of citizen-led translation which is fraught with dispute and discord, a ‘not-so-collaborative’ form of intercultural mediation involving translator-advocates of many different and opposing points of view.

References:

Baker, Mona (2006) Translation and Conflict: A narrative account, London & New York: Routledge.
Baker, Mona (2013) ‘Translation as an Alternative Space for Political Action’, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest, 12(1): 23-47.
Foucault, Michel (1984/1986) ‘Of Other Spaces’, Translated by Jay Miskowiec from the original French text: ‘Des Espaces Autres’, Diacritics, 16(1): 22-27.
Pérez-González, Luis (2010) ‘‘Ad-hocracies’ of Translation Activism in the Blogosphere. A Genealogical Case Study’, in Mona Baker, Maeve Olohan and María Calzada Pérez (eds), Text and Context, Manchester: St Jerome Publishing, 259-287.

Stefania Taviano,
University of Messina, Italy

Translation and Art Activism: The Case of Arab Hip Hop

A popular global style of music that has captured the attention of audiences throughout the world, Hip Hop takes different forms according to the musical and cultural traditions of the countries where it is (re)interpreted. In recent years Hip Hop has drawn the attention of scholars from a variety of disciplines, particularly music as well as cultural studies. However, the importance of translation as an intrinsic element of Hip Hop has so far gone largely unnoticed.

Translation, broadly understood as a complex and diffuse phenomenon, contributes to Hip Hop’s ability to traverse geographical, political and social borders and to give voice to people of all cultures. This presentation will attempt to demonstrate the central role that translation plays in constructing the identity of diasporic Arab Hip Hoppas, such as the British Palestinian Shadia Mansour and the Iraqi-Canadian Narcicyst, both as artists and as activists who belong to a global community committed to shared values of peace and solidarity. Drawing on the notion of prefiguration, selected songs and videos will be examined to identify Hip Hop strategies aimed at subverting literal and metaphorical borders and bringing about a change in the here and now rather than in an ideal future. Analysing the impact of translational practices and the prefigurative role of Hip Hop from such a perspective can contribute to shedding new light on art activism as one way of challenging mainstream politics and hegemonic cultural representations.

Theodoros Vyzas
TEI of Epirus, Greece

Community translation in Greece: Communities without translation

Nowadays, migration flows due to economic reasons, natural disasters or conflicts grow bigger and bigger. Thousands of migrants and refugees from Asian and African countries arrive in Southern European countries every month. This leads to the coexistence of numerous language and culture communities inside host societies. A typical example is Greece because of its central geographical location in southeast Europe. Community interpreting and translation are supposed to bridge communication gaps between allophones and public services and although researchers have focused considerably on interpreting in recent years because of its urgent and direct nature, community translation has aroused little interest despite its specialized character. Taking into account the influence of sociological and sociolinguistic theories on translation studies - Wallerstein's, Bourdieu's and Gumperz's among others - we will proceed to the investigation of the status of community translation in Greece, taking into consideration the particularities of the context in the country, which does not really consider itself as multicultural. More precisely: Greece has never recognized any - with only one exception - linguistic minorities and any massive contact of Greek people with allophones inside the country occurred only in 1991. The European directives already transposed have not had the desired effect on the inclusion of community translation in communicating with foreigners, while the high demand for non-European languages causes additional problems in finding translators. Finally, the professional status of the community translator has never been a priority in Greece. We conclude that the Greek state has to accelerate the implementation of community translation as a means of ensuring equal access of foreigners to public services, action which, by raising language and cultural awareness, thus upgrading the professional status of translators, will lead to more justice in society.

Sue-Ann Harding
College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hamad bin Khalifa University, Qatar

Tell me the story is and do not leave out anything": Translating victims' statements in South Africa

A complainant’s first encounter with a police officer is a complex language event in which language, translation, narrative, power, law and criminal justice are all deeply interconnected. Written constructions of sworn statements by police officers in the course of these pre-statement sessions form the basis of any further legal action and are thus a critical aspect of the law. In discharging this function, police officers simultaneously act as both intra-lingual translators, that is, translating the original oral interview into a written summary narrative, and inter-lingual translators, translating isiXhosa (in this case) into English, an official language of the criminal justice system. It is these written statements that assume official status and are consequently (if the case makes it to court) used to lead the evidence during court proceedings. By transcribing these (usually discarded) police recordings of the complainants’ original o ral narratives, our research enables, for the first time, a close textual comparative analysis between the original oral isiXhosa and the written English statement. Drawing on social narrative theory, this paper interrogates these translations and translation practices, which appear to only entrench the power differentials at play between vulnerable, marginalised individuals and those who work in the criminal justice system. We argue that raising awareness of the manipulations inherent in these practices can form the basis for developing police training that promotes and enables, even in what are typically difficult and highly stressful encounters, a culture of institutional social responsibility, ethical translation, and the provision of social and criminal justice.

Olcay Şener
Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey

Healthcare Interpreting in Turkey

Community interpreting is a developing branch as a profession around the world due to the increasing need for interpreters in social services. Turkey can be also counted among the countries where community interpreting is developing, as Turkey is a destination for tourism including health tourism. Therefore, many private hospitals recruit interpreters who enable communication between healthcare providers and patients.

On the other hand, there is little academic research conducted relating to healthcare/medical interpreting as a sub-branch of community interpreting in Turkey, even though it is commonly practised. Due to the unique nature of this specific type of interpreting where communication is key to providing accurate and quality care and treatment, the role of the healthcare interpreter in relation to ethics remains to be explored and discussed. Lack of an explicit job description and code of ethics/conduct in Turkey causes challenges in practice for healthcare providers and interpreters as well as patients which implies a risk for quality of service.

This presentation focuses on a case study in which the role of interpreter is explored in relation to the issue of ethics in healthcare interpreting. Observations and interviews conducted with 15 interpreters working in private hospitals in Turkey will constitute the discussion of this study, which is part of a broader study on healthcare interpreting in Turkey.

The role of interpreter in the above-mentioned settings will be analyzed on two levels: during interpretation and beyond interpretation on micro and macro levels. The choices of the interpreter on the micro level during interpretation will be discussed in relation to role and ethics on the macro level beyond interpretation. Our interviews with healthcare interpreters suggest that medical terminology is one of the main problems during interpretation and unfamiliarity with medical terminology may lead to misunderstandings and errors in interpretation.  However, the role of the interpreter as an “international patient consultant” is a broader issue that deserves discussion as revealed by our observations and interviews. The interpreter plays a pivotal role in bridging the gap between healthcare providers and patients during and beyond interpretation. Data obtained from healthcare interpreters will contribute to a rich description and a deeper understanding of this complex role in healthcare settings in Turkey.

References:

Angelelli, C. V. Medical Interpreting and Cross-Cultural Communication. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004
Corsellis, A. Public Service Interpreting: The First Steps. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008
Hale, Sandra Beatriz. Community Interpreting. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007
Gentile, A., U. Ozolins and M. Vasilakakos. Liaison Interpreting: A Handbook. Australia: Melbourne University Press, 1996.
Pöchhacker, F. and M. Shlesinger (Ed.), Healthcare Interpreting. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2007.
Pöchhacker, F. “'Getting Organized': The Evolution of Community Interpreting” in Interpreting 4(1), 125–140. 1999.
Pöchhacker, F. Introducing Interpreting Studies. London: Routledge, 2004. 
Pöchhacker, F. “The Community Interpreter’s Task: Self-Perception and Provider Views” in The Critical Link 2: Interpreters in the Community, edited by R. Roberts, S. E. Carr, D. Abraham, A. Dufour, 49-67. Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000

Bashir Mahjoub Raji,
University of Granada, Spain

A Practical Approach to Learning Interpreting from English, French and Spanish into Arabic

Many historians in the field of translation consider Interpreting practice as one of the oldest professions (Baigorri 2000; Herbert 1978; Hermann 1956[1]), since its origins date back to the emergence of humans and the formation of communities of individuals who do not communicate in the same language (Haensch 1965: 3) Interpreting has evolved over time in both form and practice to keep up with the evolution of the needs of its users. Interpreting currently enjoys a strong presence at the local and international levels due to its use in the fields of politics, economics, culture, and during televised coverage for multi-lingual interviews.

In spite of its importance and frequent use, interpreting and the way it is conducted have hardly been the topic of extensive research and study in the Arab world. The Published works in this field according to Mr. Abdullah Al Amid (2009) are limited to three books. These books[2] look into the basic principles of interpreting in general and do not account learning this discipline in particular.

Interpreting is considered a linguistic and cognitive activity in which the interpreter is responsible for the linguistic and cultural mediation process through the use of a set of linguistic, stylistic and cultural terminological devices that relate to the language and culture of the target language (Valero Garcés 2015). Interpreting depends on four major almost-concurrent factors: (1) listening to the speaker's message, (2) deconstructing it, (3) building the structure of the equivalent translated sentence in the mind of the interpreter, (4) and delivering it in the target language in an appropriate fashion. Accordingly, we propose in this study to employ a theoretical and applied teaching approach which addresses in the first phase of the training each of these skills separately through preliminary exercises targeted specifically at the learning and mastery of the above skills. However, these skills have to be blended gradually and in a well-graded manner in terms of the degree of difficulty as the units of the syllabus unfold, to ultimately reach an advanced stage in which the learner is able to exercise interpreting in a manner that ensures the basic principles of quality performance. We divided this syllabus into nine units arranged into three levels proficiency: basic, intermediate, and advanced. Each unit includes a video footage, a text and live presentations in English, French and Spanish that cover a number of topics generally translated by professional freelance interpreters and local and international institutions, in addition to theoretical information and practical exercises for each level.

References:

Valero Garcés, Carmen (2015) Forms of Mediation Between Cultures: Community Translation and Interpreting. Beirut: Arab Science Publishers Inc.
Bisafi, Rasheeda (2003).  Muqarabat fi Ta’limiat Al Tarjama Al Fawria (Approaches to the teachings of Simultaneous Interpreting) Dar Al Gharb, Wahran, publishers.
Khowjali, Hisham (2004)  Al tarjama Al Fawria (Simultaneous Interpreting) . Dar Taibah for Publishing and Distribution, Riyadh.
Al Dirweesh, Ali Mohammed (2003)  Daleel Al Turjuman Fi Mabadi Al Tarjama Al Fawria (Translators Guide to the Principles of Simultaneous Interpreting).Melborn: Rightscope.
Al Aameed, Abdullah (2016) . Dirasat Al Tarjama (Translation studies), Arabic translation and Intercultural Dialogue Association (Ateeda) in: goo.gl/5VZagS. Accessed on September 21, 2016.
BAIGORRI JALÓN, J. (2000). La interpretación de conferencias: El nacimiento de una profesión: De París a Nuremberg. Granada: Comares.
BAIGORRI JALÓN, J. (2004). Interpreters at the UN: A History. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.
HAENSCH, G. (1965). Técnica y picardía del intérprete diplomático. Munich: Max Hueber Verlag.
HERBERT, J. (1978).  “How Conference Interpreting Grew”. Language Interpreting and Communication 6, 5-10.
PÖCHHACKER, F. (2004). Introducing Interpreting Studies. New York: Routledge.

Jamal Mohamed Gaber Abdalla
UAE University, UAE

Role of Translators and Contextual Factors in the Development of Translation Studies in Arabic

Despite the fact that Arabic was the language of one of the greatest translation movements in history during which Greek scientific and philosophical works were translated into Arabic, Translation Studies in Arabic has only recently started to take shape as a discipline, almost two decades after its maturity as a full-fledged discipline in other languages such as English and French. This study explores the role of translators and some contextual factors behind the recent development of the discipline in Arabic, its current situation, the challenges facing its progress and future prospects. The study is based on a survey of translation-related literature, events and developments. The study findings show that, in addition to international and regional political, economic and sociocultural factors, translators are playing a significant role in developing the discipline in Arabic, as many key Translation Studies works have been translated from other languages into Arabic creating a knowledge base for Arab scholars, students, writers and practitioners. The study also shows that a number of challenges face progress in the discipline in Arabic including terminology translation and standardization.

References:

ALECSO. 1996. al-Khitta al-Qawmiyya li-al-Tarjama. Tunis: ALECSO.
Arab Thought Foundation. 2007. Diraasaat wa Abhaath al-Multaqaa al-Dawlii al-Thaanii li-al-Tarjama. Beirut: Arab Thought Foundation.
Baker, Mona. ed. 1998/2009. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge.
Gutas, Dimitri. 1998. Greek Thought, Arabic Culture. Madison Avenue and New York: Routledge.
Farghal. M. and Mannaa'. A. 2013. al-Tarjama bayna Tajalliyaat al-Lugha wa Faa'iliyyat al-Thaqaafa. London: al-Sayyaab Publishing.
al-Hakiim, As'ad. 1994. 'Ilm al-Tarjama al-Tatbiiqii. Damascus: Daar Tlaas.
al-'Imaam, Mujaab and Muhammad Abdul'aziiz. 2014. al-Tarjama wa 'Ishkaalaat al-Muthaaqafa. Doha: Muntadaa al-'Alaaqaat al-'Arabiyya al-Dawliyya.
Khasaara, Mamduuh. 1994. al-Ta‘riib wa al-Tanmiya al-Lughawiyya. Damascus: al-'Ahliyya.
al-Jumaylii, Rashiid. 1980. Harakat al-Tarjama wa al-Naql fii al-Mashriq al-'Islaamii. Benghazi: Manshuuraat Jami'at Garyuunis.
al-Sayyaadii, M. 1993. al-Ta'riib wa Tansiiquhu fii al-Watani al-'Arabii. Beirut: Markaz Dirasaat al-Wahda al-'Arabiyya.
Stetkevych, Jaroslav. 1970. The Modern Arabic Literary Language: Lexical and Stylistic Developments. Washington D. C.: Georgetown University Press.
Al-Tayaari, Muhammad. 1980. al-Ta‘riib fii al-Watan al-‘Arabii. Beirut: Markaz Dirasaat al-Wahda al-‘Arabiyya.
Zaytuunii, L. 1994. Harakat al-Tarjama fii 'Asr al-Nahda. Beirut: Daar al-Nahaar.

Evanthia Saridaki
State School of Tourism in Thessaloniki, Greece

The translator as social and ideological mediator: integrating the Social Dimension of the Translator in translator training programmes  

Although translators are often primarily seen as language professionals, their knowledge and skills extend far beyond their linguistic competence. As social beings, they are engaged in a highly social activity, controlled by the communicative needs of real people in real social context. The purpose of the paper is to offer a framework of reflection on the social dimension of the translator and the integration of the sociological aspect of translation in translator training courses. First of all, we will briefly discuss some issues related to the concept “social dimension of the translator” such as: translators as members of the translation community and other social networks, translators as “active shapers of the source text” and translators as participants in the political, cultural and intellectual life of their society. Furthermore, the implications of the social role of the translator for the theorizing and teaching of translation will be analyzed. For this purpose, we will refer to the professional competences as defined by the EMT (European Master’s in Translation), this is a quality label for translator training courses at master’s level, which is given to programmes that meet commonly accepted quality standards for translator training, in order to examine whether the acquisition of social competence constitutes one of the objectives of the programmes-members of the EMT network. Finally, there will be some suggestions of integrating the social dimension of the translator in translation theory courses. Some methodological approaches will be briefly presented such as:  Mossop’s translation theory course model, Collina’s theoretical approach and Robinson’s proposals, as didactic tools that will help future translators to understand social processes better and play a responsible and ethical role in them.

Di Wu
The University of Auckland, New Zealand

Developing translation competence: teachers' and students' cognitions and practices

Current research on translation education is theory or experience oriented. Although some publications on translator training can be found, most of them are “anecdotal in nature” (Kelly & Martin, 2009, p. 299). These studies can only be accounted as the sharing of individual, institutional, or national experiences, which are not supported by empirical evidences. Other than that, the research focuses are always on impersonal aspects such as the content or the activities in the translation classroom, while the human factors, especially translation teachers are ignored.  This study tries to understand the cognitions about translation competence and translation teaching strategies that translation teachers and students have, and also it investigates teachers’ actual teaching practices in the classroom. It adopts a mix-methods approach. A preliminary quantitative study was conducted by using a teacher questionnaire and a student questionnaire to understand 100 teachers’ and 300 students’ cognitions and practices. Followed by that was a qualitative study, in which 6 translation teachers’ teaching practices were observed. After that, these teachers and 12 of their students (2 from each teacher’s observed classroom) were interviewed.   In this presentation, the author will first report the congruence and disparity between teachers’ cognitions and students’ cognitions/teachers’ cognitions and practices/teachers’ and students’ preferred teaching strategies based on statistical analysis (including t-test, MANOVA, etc.). He will then discuss the reasons for the congruence and disparity between teachers and students based on qualitative data. In the last part, he will provide some implications for translator training, translation teachers’ self-development, and translation institutions’ policy-making.

Awadalkareem Alhassan
Dhofar University, Oman

A corpora-based approach for training EFL student translators and interpreters: moving beyond bilingual dictionaries and intuition

Corpora have recently been increasingly used in the field of translation and translator and interpreter education. Monolingual, parallel and comparable corpora can offer invaluable insights and knowledge into the best ways, strategies and practices of dealing with translation and interpreting problems. Moreover, using parallel corpora, in particular, can potentially help student translators and interpreters produce more accurate and meaningful translation into the second language. This is because parallel corpora can provide authentic examples of translation of different genres translated by expert/professional translators. The presentation will propose a corpus-based approach drawing on monolingual, parallel and comparable corpora to enable translation teachers to enhance student translators' skills and strategies in order to effectively achieve translation tasks and successfully function in their future translation and interpreting profession. The proposed approach will focus on the tasks of translation from Arabic into English since difficulties are likely encountered when translating into the target language than the other way round. The presentation reflects on the experiences of some student translators in a Sudanese university enrolled on a translation course as part of their requirements for a BA degree in English. The proposed approach has two main objectives. Firstly, it intends to provide both teacher and student translators and interpreters with additional resources that move beyond the (intuition) and “traditional” (bilingual) dictionaries as the sole tools for translation, predominately used in this particular context. Secondly, it is hoped that the approach will draw the attention of Applied Linguistics/TESOL teachers and researchers, in the Arab world, to corpora as a promising area for research and pedagogy in translation and translator and interpreter training and education. The potential implementation challenges of the proposed approach will be discussed and suggestions for overcoming these challenges will also be offered. Finally, some pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research will be discussed.  

TII German Language Program

The celebrations of the Qatar – Germany Year of Culture are already over, but a new year full of German language courses has only just begun!

Who we are

The concept of the German Program is not only to teach the German language, but also to provide an environment to learn about Germany’s culture, tradition and values in order to help students to have an easier start into the German educational system and working life.

Our courses are not only for future German students or if you wish to work in Germany. We provide a piece of Germany for everyone who is interested in the German culture and society.

Whether you have a business partner in Germany or you enjoy the beautiful landscape in one of the German speaking countries or if you wish to have a healthcare visit there – our German Program will help you to break the ice and will make you feel more comfortable.

Germany is not only famous for its cars or strong economy – learn more about the beautiful cities, the numerous lakes, the Swiss and Austrian Alps, the huge variety of classic music ranging from Mozart to Beethoven and of course, we will not forget to mention the excellent food, the German speaking countries have to offer!

Whatever your purpose might be, professional or personal enrichment, our NEW German language program will help you achieve your goals and will build up a versatile intercultural exchange.

With our tailor made courses with communicative approach, based on international quality standards, we will facilitate your language learning as well as guide you towards taking the German language exams, if that is your goal.

All German courses are systematically laid out, with each course building on the contents of the previous level. The levels are based on the common European reference framework for languages, which comprises six levels in total.

TII Italian Language Program

Welcome to Our NEW Italian Program!

Everyone goes to Italy at some point in their lives.

Italian is one of the two new language added to the growing roster of languages taught at the TII Language Center! Learning this language will give you the opportunity to get a step closer towards exploring the Roman Empire, one of the great ancient civilizations, and its heir, modern Italy. Italy embodies so many things that all of us love and enjoy: history, culture, music, food, natural beauty, beaches, and many others. It always helps when you can approach the natives in their language.

Italian Colosseum

About the Workshops

Overview

Universal access and memorable experiences entails an overall feeling of security, comfort, freedom of choice and tailored solutions for all users, regardless of their cultural and linguistic background and/or physical, cognitive and sensory abilities. By providing user-centered accessible environments, hospitality providers – resorts, hotels, restaurants, etc. – will guarantee that all visitors/patrons enjoy their venues and services with the sensation that they have been catered for as unique clients.
In this workshop, participants will be introduced to the requirements of making a hospitality venue universally accessible through a holistic communicative approach. This entails understanding the envisioned users’ profiles, clarifying the physical, structural and communication layers in different contexts, identifying requirements and designing plans for action.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for anybody (students and professionals) working or with an interest in the communication, hospitality or tourism industries. No specific previous knowledge or training is required. The maximum capacity is 20 participants.

Structure

The workshop includes a combination of (1) presentations, (2) breakout groups and (3) scenario-based problem solving with regard to (1) the parameters of universal access in hospitality, (2) the determination of site specific needs, and (3) a basic understanding of the solutions available for the development of inclusive user-centered experiences. The workshop, which will be laid out in 4 sessions, will address the following issues:

Session 1: The nature of Universal Access through the Communicative Approach

  • Defining Universal Access and User-centered Experiences
  • Defining User profiles and specific needs
  • Positioning of hospitality within the tourism cycle
  • (Multimodal) Communication within the broader picture
  • Parametrizing areas of action: Information; Wayfinding; Interaction; Experience 

Session 2: The communicative approach in detail

  • Welcomes and goodbyes (human interaction / information / wayfinding)
  • Room service (layout / information / entertainment /…)
  • Amenities (restaurant, swimming pool, spa, playground, gardens,…)
  • Emergency and specific requirements

Session 3: Auditing in practice (on site exercise)

  • Parameters for auditing/evaluating a site
  • Planning for change
  • Levels of action (from the ideal to the possible)

Session 4: The holistic picture: inclusive user-centered experiences

  • When the analogue and digital world come together towards change
  • Web presence (access within and beyond W3C)
  • Closing the cycle (from booking, to experience, to feedback)

Methodology

This workshop will be very practical in nature. Participants will be actively engaged in discussing and framing the topics in view of their needs and experience. All relevant information provided will be based on the latest international standards for Accessible tourism and hospitality. Practical examples and best practices will be shared to illustrate all the parameters addressed.
The group will be involved in group and class discussions and will be invited to carry out practical problem-solving exercises and to develop solutions for specific problems to be faced in hotels, restaurants, or other hospitality venues.
A project-based exercise will be carried out during the last two sessions. Participants will carry out an on-site auditing exercise, to then produce a plan for action, within a set of given parameters.
Finally, participants will be invited to determine personal trajectories whereby they see the implementation of the knowledge acquired.

Learning Objectives

  • To understand the nature of universal access, user-centered experience and inclusion;
  • To determine the basic parameters of access in view of specific user profiles;
  • To engage with reality in order to determine needs;
  • To determine possible strategies and tools to solve specific communication issues;
  • To define a basic plan for action for a specific setting.

Outcomes

  1. Basic knowledge in user-centered accessible environments;
  2. Ability to evaluate existing environments:
  3. Ability to devise a basic action plan for change and the implementation of a specific strategy.

Leader

Dr. Josélia Neves

Josélia Neves is Full Professor at the Translation and Interpreting Institute, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hamad bin Khalifa University, in Qatar, where she teaches on the MA in Audiovisual Translation. She has a degree in Modern Languages and Literatures, an MA in English Studies, a PhD in Translation Studies, with a dissertation on Subtitling for the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing (SDH).

In her career as a university teacher and researcher, she has led a number of collaborative projects in various fields – television, the cinema and DVD, tourism, museums and cultural venues, the performing arts and education – in an effort to provide access to people of all abilities. She is considered a world-class expert in multimodal and multisensory communication and has published and given training all over the world on topics such as Subtitling, Audio description, Audio-tactile Transcreation, Accessible websites, Access in specific venues (schools, hospitals, museums, hotels, restaurants,…) and in Planning for Change.

In Qatar she has worked closely with Qatar Museums, Doha Film Institute, Sasol, The Supreme Committee for Delivery and Legacy, among others. She is a member of the International TransMedia Research Group and has worked on various projects with the European Network for Accessible Tourism (ENAT).

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Overview

This is a mainly practical workshop which introduces participants to the techniques of intralingual and interlingual subtitling. It will introduce the specific formal and discursive features of subtitles: the temporal and spatial constraints, timing, condensation, verbal and non-verbal cues, appropriate punctuation, positioning and segmentation.
This workshop will also encourage participants to develop professional skills informed by current regional and international industry standards and practices. Participants will be introduced to the methods of tackling culture-specific problems of audiovisual texts in subtitling, including register, dialects, as well as taboo words and interjections.
The workshop will also introduce participants to nonprofessional and professional software programs, with which they will establish their subtitling skills and undertake subtitling projects of various types of TV programs and films.

Structure

The workshop includes a combination of:

  • Presentations,
  • Practical tasks,
  • Breakout groups,
  • Application of revision parameters.

Learning Objectives

  1. Introduce participants to subtitles as a form of inter-semiotic communication and inter-linguistic mediation;
  2. Acquaint participants with the constraints and international norms of subtitling;
  3. Introduce participants to subtitling practices in the Arab World;
  4. Subtitle a variety of audio-visual materials according to current professional standards and practices;
  5. Introduce participants to the key issue of quality in subtitling, both internationally and in the Arab world.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Understand the formal and discursive features of subtitles;
  2. Understand the practical and technical constraints of subtitling;
  3. Outline the current industry practices and standards;
  4. Understand key issues of quality in subtitling;
  5. Critically reflect on the appropriate subtitling strategies to be used in each context;
  6. Effectively and professionally apply the most appropriate mediating technique when localising a media product;
  7. Use subtitling and media-editing software packages;
  8. Effectively engage with the critical issues of subtitling in both oral and written forms;
  9. Work competently and confidently with a range of media products.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translation and media students, new entrants to the profession and established practitioners. The maximum capacity is 15 participants.

Leader

Dr Amer Al-Adwan

Dr Amer Al-Adwan is an Assistant Professor of Audiovisual Translation in the Translation and Interpreting Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar. He obtained his PhD in Translation and Intercultural Studies from the University of Manchester, UK in 2009. He worked for few international institutions, including BBC Arabic and Aljazeera English as a translator and a subtitler. His research interests focus on audiovisual translation, discourse analysis, intercultural studies, politeness theory and media translation.

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Overview

Translation is an essential process in almost every sporting encounter around the world. During the 2022 World Cup in Qatar, for example, how will the world understand the matches played and the images displayed, viewed on their television sets, mobile devices, tracked online or commented upon in the media?
This workshop exposes participants to sports translation and writing techniques in Arabic and English and develops in them the skills required in professional sports translation and editing.

Structure

The workshop consists of:

  • Presentations,
  • Examples reflecting cases of sports translation,
  • Practice on the translation strategies adopted in sports translation,
  • A review of the translation techniques that ensure adequate sports translation outcomes.

Methodology

A set of translation exercises will be presented to the participants to enable them to evaluate their skills in the analysis and transfer of texts from source to target languages.
Participants will have the opportunity to openly exchange the challenges they encounter in their translation environments. Brainstorming questions will be raised during the workshop to ensure involving all participants.

Learning Objectives

  1. Introduce participants to the various ways that would develop in them the needed skills to sports translation and editing;
  2. Increase professional awareness among participants such as intercultural competence, and social factors in sports contexts; 
  3. Develop the skills required for participants to deal with various sports texts;
  4. Develop sports terms search skills and train participants to use proper dictionaries and glossaries.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Translate and draft short sports passages and assess them in terms of the criteria of naturalness;
  2. Apply translation skills and knowledge to solve translation issues and problems in sports texts; 
  3. Constructively revise sports translations completed by peers, based on international standards, to meet the requirements of naturalness (cohesion, coherence, genre, text type…);
  4. Search for background sports knowledge and terminology using appropriate resources, and make informed decisions about sports terms and phrases;
  5. Draft a sports translation revision report.

Target Participants

This workshop is recommended for translators, beginners and professionals. Bilingual editors, journalists and copywriters in sports fields are also encouraged to attend this workshop.

Leader

Nabeel Rashid

Nabeel is a translation reviser at HBKU’s TII. He also offers professional training to interns during their MA in translation studies. Before working at TII, Nabeel Rashid worked as an accredited court translator in Canada at the Ministry of Justice in Vancouver. He also worked as a registered health care interpreter in the Provincial Health Authority in Vancouver-Canada and provided translation services as a licensed community translator in the same city with human rights organizations such as the United Nations’ Vancouver Association for Survivors of Torture.     

Nabeel completed a postgraduate diploma in health care and community translation at British Columbia’s top career training hub, Vancouver Community College in 2012. He has two degrees in English, BA and MA from the University of Baghdad, where he worked as a lecturer at the Departments of English and translation. In 2003, he worked as a senior translator to the Secretary General of the Qatar Olympic Committee for years, and acted as a member of the Doha Asian Games Organizing Committee, in charge of the translation legacy in 2006.  

Nabeel Rashid was granted membership in translation and teaching societies such as the Society of Translators and Interpreters of British Columbia (Vancouver-Canada, 2009-2013), the American Translators Association (Virginia-USA, 2005-2009), and the Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English (Nova Scotia-Canada, 2015-Present).

Among the translated and revised books by Nabeel Rashid in sports fields are: Vancouver Olympic Games: IOC Gathering and OG Events – 2010, Lifesaving and Water Safety by ILSF in 2008, The Moment of Lifetime: A Documentary on Sports History in Qatar- 2007, Qatar Delegation Book to Macau Asian Games-2007, Qatar in Athens Olympic Games- 2004, as well as tens of translated articles published by Qatar Athletics Federation on biomechanics, nutrition and genetic engineering in sports fields.

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Overview

This workshop aims at developing translation skills in a wide area of disciplines that includes, but is not limited to, general, legal and business translation. The training scheme will accommodate various performance skill levels of participants. Through in-sessional activities, participants will have the opportunity to get first-hand experience in translation by exposing them to the real routine work in a professional setting.

Structure

The workshop includes a combination of:

  • Presentations,
  • Individual and group work,
  • Source texts from real-life translation projects,
  • Practice on translation strategies that ensure functional adequacy in producing target texts translated to a professional standard.

Methodology

This workshop is practice-oriented with a view of applying the theoretical knowledge in Translation Studies to solving challenges and common problems translators face in their day-to-day work. A wide range of texts reflecting various genres and fields, such as education, business, media, law and technology, will be presented to the participants to translate in class or as homework.
Previously translated texts will also be used as parallel corpora to enable the participants to discuss and analyze the translation choices made and come to extrapolate the techniques and strategies conducive to adequate translation.
The participants will be engaged in translation discussion and peer review practice to develop the skills required for performing well in a professional environment. Assessment will take the form of in-class exercises and homework.

Learning Objectives

  1. Enable participants to apply the conceptual knowledge they have in real life practice;
  2. Expose participants to various professional translation assignments with texts of different modes and genres;
  3. Equip participants with translation strategies from a practitioner’s point of view;
  4. Guide participants through researching the available resources to compile glossaries and solve idiomatic expressions’ problems; 
  5. Examine the challenges posed to translators in their daily work and enable participants to take justifiable decisions when dealing with such challenges;
  6. Focus on specific aspects of Arabic as a target language in translation and help participants gain an understanding as to how Arabic differs linguistically and stylistically from English;
  7. Enable participants to criticize translated texts and defend their own choices in group discussions;
  8. Develop the translation skills required

Learning Outcomes

  1. Acquire hands-on experience in professional translation and problem solving;
  2. Acquire multiple translation strategies and techniques;
  3. Develop the necessary searching skills;
  4. Practice revision/proofreading of translations according to international standards;
  5. Experience the professional translation environment.

Leader

Sayed Mohamed

Sayed is a Senior Translation Specialist at TII’s Translation and Training Center since August 2014. He is contributing to the delivery of high-quality translation services, and working towards training Translation Studies MA students during their internship within the Center.

Sayed has more than 15 years of experience in various translation fields, including politics, literature, fine arts, law, medicine, education, media, and publishing. Before joining TII, he was a Translation Specialist at Qatar Foundation (QF) Communication Directorate. Prior to that, he had worked at Nahdet Misr Publishing Group as a translator and then a publishing executive.

Sayed’s education credentials include a Bachelor’s degree in English Language and Literature from Ain Shams University, Egypt, in 2001. He has also received a Master’s degree in Translation Studies from Hamad Bin Khalifa University in 2017. He has been trained in some of the world's most respected institutions, including a six-day knowledge transfer workshop with the Economist Group, a training program for publishers from the Arab world organized by Goethe Institute in Cairo, and a project management training course based on the PMI's methodology.

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Overview:

Professional interpreters are increasingly in demand in international organizations and agencies, law firms, and media networks. In addition to conference interpreting, community interpreting is also on the rise to ensure communication in courts, hospitals, educational institutions, government agencies, and conflict zones. In the light of the increasing demand for interpreters stirred by the process of globalization, the need to train interpreters is of paramount importance to equip them with the skills required to meet the market needs.
The purpose of this workshop is train the participants in gaining a basic knowledge in the field of interpreting. It provides an overview of the fundamentals of interpreting techniques and the different types of interpreting (simultaneous, consecutive, sight, whispering and liaison), and lays the foundation necessary to develop the advanced skills used by professional interpreters.

Structure:

The workshop includes:

  • Introduction to consecutive interpreting and note taking;
  • Strategies to develop short term memory as well as analyze and process information;
  • Introduction to simultaneous interpreting;
  • Strategies to solve linguistic and non-linguistic problems during the interpreting process;
  • Introduction to other types of interpreting (whispering, sight and liaison);
  • Short memory boosting exercises.

Methodology:

Live exercises will be provided by the trainer for simulation purposes. Specifically, participants will be trained in a set of two interpreting modes that require much preparation, i.e. consecutive and simultaneous. Boosting exercises will be used to help them develop their memory capacity and sharpness. They will also be invited to bring in their own experience as to the dilemmas they have encountered in their careers. The guided practice in this workshop will help them address questions such as:

  • Should the interpreter correct or improve the content of original audio-texts?
  • Should the interpreter grant priority to sense or style?
  • How should the interpreter prepare for the event?
  • How should the interpreter deal with neutrality?
  • Should interpreters accept work that lies beyond their competence?
  • Should interpreters undercut colleagues by offering lower prices for interpreting services?
  • What are the responsibilities towards other colleagues?
  • In what circumstances should the interpreter refuse work?

Learning Objectives:

  1. Build/develop the participants’ skills in interpreting;
  2. Conduct live interpreting exercises using a variety of audio-texts;
  3. Introduce participants to note taking;
  4. Conduct short memory boosting exercises.

Learning Outcomes:

  1. Build/develop the participants’ skills in interpreting;
  2. Conduct live interpreting exercises using a variety of audio-texts;
  3. Introduce participants to note taking;
  4. Conduct short memory boosting exercises.
  5. Learn about essentials of note taking techniques;
  6. Raise awareness and exposure to the interpreting environment;
  7. Acquire fairly advanced interpreting techniques;
  8. Take part in interpreting exercises with a variety of accents;
  9. Acquire strategies to develop short term memory and information processing skills.

Target Participants

The workshop is most suited for those who have a university degree in a language-related field and/or no less than 2 years of experience in translation. A good level of proficiency in Arabic and English is required. 

Leader:

Mazen Alfarhan

Mazen Alfarhan is a graduate of the universities of Damascus, Heriot-Watt and London. He is a Translation Reviser at TII Translation & Training Center since April 2013; he revises Arabic translations, leads training workshops for the community, and supervises MA students in their internship module. 

Before joining TII, he was a lecturer of Conference Interpreting and Translation at Damascus University (1999-2013), a senior translator/interpreter for the Syrian government (2001-2010), and a freelance interpreter and translator for OIC (2009-2013).

Mazen is also a Chevening Scholar and a Karim Rida Said Scholar. His education credentials include an MA degree in International Diplomacy, an MSc degree in Arabic-English Translation & Interpreting, a postgraduate diploma in Arabicization, as well as a Certificate of Sworn Legal Translation from the Syrian Ministry of Justice.

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Overview

The canons of academia have traditionally framed the relationship between creative writing and translation within narrow theoretical boundaries.
This workshop provides training in Arabic/English Literary translation, including analyzing literary texts, identifying translation challenges between these two languages, and applying effective translation strategies to deal with them.

Structure

Four 3-hour sessions over four successive days. Each session will start with a general introduction of key issues in literary translation, using presentations and class discussion, followed by relevant practical activities.

Methodology

The workshop includes a combination of:

  • Presentations,
  • class discussion,
  • practical exercises (translation and contrastive analysis of literary translations), including small-group activities. Emphasis will laid on practical exercises.

Learning Objectives

  1. Provide participants with hands-on training in translating literary texts;
  2. Familiarize participants with the key challenges in translating literary texts;
  3. Explore the role of culture in literary translation and the strategies of dealing with it;
  4. Demonstrate an understanding of the stylistic features of literary texts.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Understand the elements of style, especially in literary works;
  2. Recognize culture-specific elements and analyze their relevance to the translation activity;
  3. Analyze a literary text and find an appropriate strategy for translating it; 
  4. Apply appropriate translation strategies to various literary texts;
  5. Gain knowledge of literary expressions and techniques;
  6. Understand the role of the translator in interpreting literary texts.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translation students, new entrants to the profession and established practitioners. The maximum capacity is 20 participants.

Leader

Dr. Tarek Shamma

Dr. Tarek is an assistant professor at the Translation and Interpreting Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University. He received his PhD from the State University of New York at Binghamton, USA. His research focuses on literary translation, translation history, and culture. He is the author of Translation and the Manipulation of Difference: Arabic Literature in Nineteenth-Century England, St. Jerome.

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Overview

This workshop aims to explore the different forms of media translation, highlighting their common features, problems and challenges. Participants will be introduced to the role and functions of translation in the various forms, modes and genres of media texts and will be familiarized with the principles, techniques and constraints of media translation.

Structure

The workshop will be divided into four parts, the first of which explores the various types, genres and modes of media texts, including audiovisual and social media. The second part will address the problems, difficulties and challenges commonly encountered by media translators and interpreters, highlighting the structure of news stories and the nature of trans-editing. The third and fourth parts will provide participants with an opportunity to analyse some media translations and reflect on the main theoretical issues discussed in the previous two parts.

Day 1: Types of media & media texts

  • Position/role of the translator-journalist in the newsroom
  • Theoretical & linguistic issues in media translation

Day 2: Structure of news stories & trans-editing

  • Examples & exercises in media translation: Hard news stories & TV scripts

Day 3: Examples & exercises in media translation:

  • Editorializing

Day 4: Examples & exercises in media translation:

  • Media interpreting, audiovisual translation & social media

Methodology

The workshop combines a theoretical and practical approach. Participants will benefit from outlining the types of media involved and the relevant translation approaches adopted. Under guidance, participants will analyse selected news stories texts and complete exercises where they will directly apply the theoretical concepts discussed and the trans-editing techniques and skills they have acquired.
By critically analysing media translation samples, participants will come to appreciate the characteristic linguistic, rhetorical and discursive features of selected media texts. Through working on real-life media translation exercises, they will also reflect on the role of the translator-journalist as a mediator, negotiator or ‘re-narrator’ of news stories, thereby gaining some insight into the ideological and cultural implications of media translation.

Learning Objectives

  1. To introduce participants to the different forms, modes and genres of media texts, focusing in particular on political and economic texts;
  2. To provide you with practical training in translating media texts;
  3. To familiarize participants with the techniques and resources used in media translation and editing, as well as the challenges facing translator-journalists working in a newsroom;
  4. To help participants gain an understanding of linguistic and stylistic differences between Arabic and English media texts;
  5. To examine the common problems, pitfalls and challenges associated with media translation work, and to enable participants to take principled decisions and adopt justifiable solutions when dealing with such problems.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the workshop, participants will be able to:

  1. Recognize the different types of media texts and their respective functions and features;
  2. Develop appropriate strategies for translating media texts of different types;
  3. Apply the appropriate style and format for each type of media text in the target language;
  4. Identify and apply language and translation resources and tools used in media text production in a newsroom;
  5. Acquire some essential skills necessary for trans-editing urgent and breaking news.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translator-journalists, i.e. multilingual journalists and producers working in news agencies and other media outlets, press and communication officers, translation students and general translators seeking to enhance their media trans-editing skills. The maximum capacity is 20 participants.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translation students, new entrants to the profession and established practitioners, as well as jurists and law professionals. The maximum capacity is 20 participants.

Leader

Dr. Ashraf Abdel Fattah

Overview

The development of translation competence requires the mastery of translation techniques and strategies through professional training. This includes (1) mastering the mechanics underlying the craft and an endless learning process in two languages, (2) applying different approaches (depending on the text type), (3) carrying out a proper terminology search, (4) developing a sharp eye to sensitive ethical concerns, and (5) performing quality control through careful self-revision of the translation.
This workshop provides professional training in the above fields. It seeks to meet the needs of translators/would-be-translators who wish to develop their skills to perform well in a professional setting.

Structure

The workshop includes a combination of:

  • Presentations,
  • Breakout groups
  • Guided translation training and problem solving sessions with regard to (a) the principles and techniques of translation, (b) application of search tools, (c) self-revision/proofreading process and (d) professional ethics. 

Methodology

Translation strategies and techniques will be exposed and applied in (1) translating, (2) term/meaning searching, (3) proofreading/revising, and (4) training exercises through group-work sessions.

Learning Objectives

  1. Raise awareness to the importance of the translator’s toolkit;
  2. Equip participants with fairly advanced translation techniques;
  3. Guide participants through the application of the necessary search tools;
  4. Exchange experiences and discuss concerns with a view to improving translation skills in a professional setting.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Learn what to look for in a translation and how to look for it in a systematic way;
  2. Learn how to perform a terminology search;
  3. Acquire multiple translation techniques/strategies;
  4. Learn how to handle serious challenges in a text;
  5. Learn the principles of self-proofreading/revision;
  6. Increase awareness and exposure to the social responsibility of translators and/or revisers in addressing ethical problems while translating/revising a document.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for established translators and students of translation. The maximum capacity is 20 participants.

Leader:

Mazen Alfarhan

Mazen Alfarhan is a graduate of the universities of Damascus, Heriot-Watt and London. He is a Translation Reviser at TII Translation & Training Center since April 2013; he revises Arabic translations, leads training workshops for the community, and supervises MA students in their internship module. 

Before joining TII, he was a lecturer of Conference Interpreting and Translation at Damascus University (1999-2013), a senior translator/interpreter for the Syrian government (2001-2010), and a freelance interpreter and translator for OIC (2009-2013).

Mazen is also a Chevening Scholar and a Karim Rida Said Scholar. His education credentials include an MA degree in International Diplomacy, an MSc degree in Arabic-English Translation & Interpreting, a postgraduate diploma in Arabicization, as well as a Certificate of Sworn Legal Translation from the Syrian Ministry of Justice.

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Overview

Quality Assurance is a systematic process of checking to see whether the translation product meets specified requirements. A quality assurance system aims at increasing customer confidence and service provider’s credibility, to improve work processes and efficiency, and to enable the provider to better compete on the translation market.
Revision is an essential part of the Quality Assurance performed as part of the translation production process. This has been recognized by the European Quality Assurance Standard EN 15038 and International Quality Assurance Standard ASTM/F 2575, which require that Translation Service Providers should ensure that translations be revised. Often revisers and translators receive little or no training in revision techniques. Specialized training in quality assurance would improve the quality of the revision process and increase the quality of the final translation product.
The above-mentioned international standards have foregrounded revision as a key step in ensuring translation quality and defines it as the process of examining a translation for its “suitability for purpose and respect for the domain to which it belongs” and “recommending corrective action as necessary”.

Structure

The workshop includes a combination of:

  • Presentations,
  • Breakout groups
  • Scenario-based problem solving with regard to (a) the principles of revision, (b) revision process (c) application of revision parameters, and (d) revision ethics.

Methodology

The European Quality Assurance Standard EN 15038 and International Quality Assurance Standard ASTM/F 2575 will be exposed and applied in (1) self-revision, (2) comparative (bilingual) revision, and (3) unilingual (monolingual) revision exercises through group-work sessions.

Learning Objectives

  1. Raise awareness to the importance of revision/quality assurance in translation;
  2. Conduct practical monolingual and bilingual revision exercises to develop the skills required for participants to deal with  various issues while revising their own work and the translation of their colleagues;
  3. Exchange experiences and discuss concerns with a view to improving revision in both theory and practice.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Learn what to look for in a translation and how to do so in a systematic way;
  2. Acquire a vocabulary (metalanguage) for discussing revision issues;
  3. Learn how to give structured feedback to translators;
  4. Distinguish between a translation that meets the required standard of quality and one that requires revision;
  5. Identify in a translation, whether produced  by machine or by a translator, the nature of the elements to edit in line with the criteria of international standards; 
  6. Understand the dilemmas faced by the reviser and develop the confidence to resolve them;
  7. Increase awareness and exposure to the social responsibility of revisers in addressing ethical revision problems;
  8. Expose and analyze the revision challenges participants have encountered in their careers, for them to upgrade their skills to address them.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translation students, new entrants to the profession and established practitioners. The maximum capacity is 20 participants.

Leader

Dr. Ahmed Alaoui

Dr. Ahmed is the Head of Translation and Training Center at TII. He is a graduate of the University of Wales, and University of Essex, England. His research work focuses on translation pedagogy (translator-training). His latest book, Translation: a Practical Guide for English-Arabic Translators, is the fruit of more than 20 years of teaching translation at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He has written many articles on translation pedagogy. He was also a Visiting Scholar at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA, and University of Nantes, France.

Dr. Alaoui is also a confirmed professional translator, certified by the United Nations (Roster) and the Ministry of Justice of the Kingdom of Morocco. He has been providing translation and revision services to national and international organizations. As a professional trainer, he has been leading Translation workshops for 26 years.

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Overview

Translation technologies are tools to aid in translating texts; they are not replacements for human translators. They are helpful devices that can change the way we work, taking over tasks that are tedious and repetitive, and leaving to us what we do best, namely using our mental process to make wise decisions.
The workshop explains how SDL Trados Studio proves to be very valuable, especially as far as the language elements in the project are concerned. Such a value can be optimized depending on the expertise of translators and project managers in dealing with the advanced features of the application. Knowing how to efficiently handle these features turns them into an asset for professional translators, project managers and language service providers.
This workshop is designed for professional translators and translation studies students who already have basic knowledge of translation technologies like SDL Trados Studio and wish to develop advanced understanding of SDL Trados and Project Management with emphasis on advanced features of the application, so that they can enhance their productivity and quality.

Structure

The scope of this workshop is to familiarize participants with the advanced features of SDL Trados Studio and project management. It contains practical, real-life examples of how to leverage SDL Trados Studio to streamline translation processes. The workshop provides the following:

  • General information on translation projects management;
  • Overview of SDL Trados Studio project management cycle;
  • Examples of how to manage projects using the most commonly exploited features in SDL Trados Studio;
  • Review and sign off project in SDL Trados Studio.

Methodology

The main focus of this training workshop is on real-life examples, for which training sample files will be used. Some presentations will be used to explain the theoretical ideas behind the practical examples used during the training.

Learning Objectives

  1. Set up users and customers in the system;
  2. Introduce participants to the process of translating and editing in SDL Trados Studio;
  3. Use the project wizard to create new projects;
  4. Read reports generated by the system, e.g. File Analyze Report;
  5. Package files and assign tasks to translators and revisers;
  6. Import return packages with translated files into your project;
  7. Change project settings;
  8. Work with revisers who are not equipped with SDL Trados Studio;
  9. Run automated quality assurance on project files.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Deal with project templates;
  2. Process multiple files by creating projects;
  3. Run tasks such as file analysis and pre-translation;
  4. Read project reports and statistics;
  5. Display only particular segments in a document, e.g. all unconfirmed segments, all segments that contain a particular term, etc.;
  6. Merge multiple files into one master file;
  7. Use automated quality assurance features for checking translations, e.g. for extra blank spaces, terminology errors, etc.;
  8. Fine-tune auto-propagation settings;
  9. Revise files with track changes inside and outside Trados environment;
  10. Finalize projects and update main translation memories.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translation students, new entrants to the profession and established practitioners. The maximum capacity is 10 participants.

Leader

Wahba Youssef

Wahba has been working for TII Translation and Training Center as a Senior Translation Specialist since October 2015. He is in charge of translation technologies at TTC and trains MA students on using CAT tools and project management techniques.

Wahba is a graduate of Ain Shams University Egypt, 2001. His major study was English, Arabic and German. He holds a diploma in Information Systems Analysis and Design regulated by NCC in cooperation with the Egyptian Ministry of Communications in 2003. He also obtained a BA degree in International Business and Management from Bournemouth University. Additionally, he gained a level 2 diploma in Financial Accounting under the regulation of the Association of Accounting Technicians in London and was awarded the membership of the association. He is also certified in SDL Trados Studio 2017, SDL MultiTerm 2017 Desktop and MemoQ Level PM.

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Overview

Translation technologies are tools to aid in translating texts; they are not replacements for human translators. They are helpful devices that can change the way we work, taking over tasks that are tedious and repetitive, and leaving to us what we do best, namely using our mental process to make wise decisions.
The workshop explains how CAT tools prove to be very valuable, especially as far as the language elements in the project are concerned. Such a value can be optimized depending on the expertise of translators and project managers in dealing with CAT tools. Knowing how to efficiently handle these tools turns them into an asset for professional translators and language service providers.
This workshop is designed for professional translators and translation studies students who wish to quickly explore CAT tools with emphasis on SDL Trados Studio, so that they can start working productively with this leading translation system from day one.

Structure

The scope of this workshop is to familiarize participants with the main features of SDL Trados Studio. It contains practical, real-life examples of how to leverage SDL Trados Studio to streamline translation processes. This workshop provides the following:

  • General information on CAT technologies;
  • Overview of the SDL Trados Studio;
  • Examples of how to translate documents using the most commonly exploited features in SDL Trados Studio;

Methodology

The main focus of this training workshop is on real-life examples, for which training sample files will be used. Some presentations will be used to explain the theoretical ideas behind the practical examples used during the training.

Learning Objectives

  1. CAT technologies overview;
  2. SDL Trados Studio Environment;
  3. Configure the application to your personal preferences;
  4. Deliver the finished translation;
  5. Exchange experiences and discuss concerns with a view to improving the usage of translation technologies in both theory and practice.

Learning outcomes

  1. Understand CAT technologies: what is a translation memory (TM), termbase, AutoSuggest dictionary?
  2. Create and maintain Translation Memories
  3. Translate MS Office files in SDL Trados Studio making use of the most common features;
  4. Translate PDF files;
  5. Segment Fragment Matching;
  6. User Defined Settings;
  7. Aligne Legacy Files;
  8. Generate Auto-Suggest Dictionaries;
  9. Create Termbases from Excel glossaries;
  10. Perform Fuzzy Match Repairs;
  11. Generate target translations and update translation memories.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translation students, new entrants to the profession and established practitioners. The maximum capacity is 10 participants.

Leader

Wahba Youssef

Wahba has been working for TII Translation and Training Center as a Senior Translation Specialist since October 2015. He is in charge of translation technologies at TTC and trains MA students on using CAT tools and project management techniques.

Wahba is a graduate of Ain Shams University Egypt, 2001. His major study was English, Arabic and German. He holds a diploma in Information Systems Analysis and Design regulated by NCC in cooperation with the Egyptian Ministry of Communications in 2003. He also obtained a BA degree in International Business and Management from Bournemouth University. Additionally, he gained a level 2 diploma in Financial Accounting under the regulation of the Association of Accounting Technicians in London and was awarded the membership of the association. He is also certified in SDL Trados Studio 2017, SDL MultiTerm 2017 Desktop and MemoQ Level PM.

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Overview

Law is a part of culture; hence legal translation is “documentary translation” (secondary text to help understanding). Though the translation does not replace the original text with its legal status, it should be transparent enough to produce the same legal effects in practice. The legal translator’s work is based on Hermeneutics, since one needs to understand the text without necessarily being a jurist. The source text offers the input on the basis of which a new autonomous text is created in the target language taking into account mainly the needs of the final users. Written legal documents are characterized by a specific style and rhetorical structure to prevent fraud, additions, omissions or alterations in legal text. These characteristics differ across languages.
The purpose of this workshop is to expose the various features of legal texts and the challenges they pose to professional translators. A good deal of contact time will be devoted to practicing the strategies that help overcome such challenges, with reference to Arabic and English legal documents, for participants to upgrade their translation competence in the field of legal translation.

Structure

The workshop includes a combination of:

  • Presentations,
  • Breakout groups
  • Scenario-based problem solving with regard to (a) basic strategies of legal translation, (b) practice on translating contracts (c) practice on translating Criminal Law documents, (d) practice on translating Family Law documents, and (e) practice on revision and solving ethical issues in legal translation. 

Methodology

Group work: All in-class practical exercises are conducted in groups, where participants  benefit from guided practice to:

  • Focus on translation as a process, questioning the proposed solution and finding arguments to adopt or reject it, in line with the function of the translation assignment;
  • Find the best solution rather than the final cut-and-dried solution, keeping the same thematic structure of the source text;
  • Focus on translating as text-production (textuality test).

Learning Objectives

  1. Raise awareness to the major problems encountered in legal translation;
  2. Build capacity to develop the translation strategies professional translators use to solve such problems;
  3. Build capacity of legal text revision and proofreading;
  4. Build capacity to address ethical issues in legal translation.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Participants develop the required level of awareness and skills to make informed decisions in translating legal texts;
  2. Participants develop the skill of analyzing legal texts for translation purposes;
  3. Participants develop the skill of repairing aspects of loss and the techniques of revising legal texts;
  4. Participants develop the skill of argumentation to defend their choices as to the ethical issues related to the translation of legal texts.

Target Participants

This Workshop is recommended for translation students, new entrants to the profession and established practitioners, as well as jurists and law professionals. The maximum capacity is 20 participants.

Leader

Dr. Ahmed Alaoui

Dr. Ahmed Alaoui is the Head of Translation and Training Center at TII. He is a graduate of the University of Wales, and University of Essex, England. His research work focuses on translation pedagogy (translator-training). His latest book, Translation: a Practical Guide for English-Arabic Translators, is the fruit of more than 20 years of teaching translation at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He has written many articles on translation pedagogy. He was also a Visiting Scholar at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA, and University of Nantes, France.

Dr. Alaoui is also a confirmed professional translator, certified by the United Nations (Roster) and the Ministry of Justice of the Kingdom of Morocco. He has been providing translation and revision services to national and international organizations. As a professional trainer, he has been leading Translation workshops for 26 years.

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HBKU Announces Dr. Amal Al Malki as Founding Dean of HBKU's College of Humanities and Social Sciences

Hamad bin Khalifa University (HBKU), a member of Qatar Foundation (QF), has announced the appointment of Dr. Amal Mohammed Al Malki as Founding Dean of its College of Humanities and Social Sciences. The College of Humanities and Social Sciences will initially offer two master’s degree programs that were previously delivered through HBKU’s Translation and Interpreting Institute (TII) – an MA in Translation Studies and an MA in Audiovisual Translation – with an expanded range of degree programs to follow in the coming years.

The new college will build upon the strength of HBKU’s Translating and Interpreting Institute, which was launched by Dr. Al Malki in 2012. Within the new College of Humanities and Social Sciences, TII will continue to provide high quality professional translation and interpreting services, as well as providing language programs in Arabic, English, French, Spanish and Mandarin Chinese to the community.

Dr. Ahmad M. Hasnah, President of HBKU, commented: “The humanities and social sciences are essential fields that provide students with a deeper understanding of the complex and pressing issues of the day, and prepare them for the rapid transitions that mark knowledge-based economies. Dr. Amal Al Malki possesses the academic experience, the passion, and the dedication to ensure that HBKU’s College of Humanities and Social Sciences will be a valuable, vibrant addition, not only to our university, but also to Qatari society.

Prior to joining Hamad bin Khalifa University, Dr. Al Malki was Associate Professor at Carnegie Mellon University, where she became Education City’s first Qatari faculty member. She first joined Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar in 2005 as a visiting professor after teaching in Carnegie Mellon University’s mother campus in Pittsburgh in the United States. She holds a Ph.D. in Comparative Literature and a MA in English/Arabic Applied Linguistics and Translation from SOAS University of London. Dr. Al Malki is a well-regarded public speaker and a published author, most notably for “Arab Women in Arab News: Old Stereotypes and New Media” which was published in 2012.

Most recently, during her tenure as Executive Director of TII, Dr. Al Malki was responsible for gaining validation for the MA in Translation Studies from the University of Geneva, making it HBKU’s first externally validated graduate degree. She also ensured that TII’s International Translation Conference quickly became an important annual fixture on the calendar of leading translation experts and academics. The conference continues to grow in stature, substantially building the profile of Qatar in this field, with the 7th Annual Conference, titled “Politics of Translation: Representations and Power”, taking place at the Qatar National Convention Centre from March 28th to 29th, 2016. 

Tii & Mathaf Collaborate on Art Exhibition for Visually Impaired Visitors

The Translation and Interpreting Institute (TII) at Hamad bin Khalifa University (HBKU), collaborated with Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art on a unique, inclusive art exhibition titled “Art Translates”.

This special exhibition allowed blind visitors to enjoy a selection of paintings by prominent Arab artists through touch and through the audio description of each painting. Students from TII’s Master of Arts in Audiovisual Translation (MAAT) program developed special Enriched Descriptive Guides (EDG) and reinterpreted the pieces of art in tactile formats, thus making the art pieces accessible to visually impaired visitors.

The inclusive exhibition was hosted by Mathaf, at their base within Education City, on December 5th to celebrate the United Nations International Day of Persons with Disabilities. The featured works were paintings by Baya Mahieddine, Jassim Al-Zaini, Farhad Moshiri, Ahmed Morsi, Faisal Laibi, Hamad Owais, Rafa Al-Nasiri, Ali Hassan and Naja Mahdawi.

Dr. Josélia Neves, an associate professor at the university with the responsibility of promoting accessible learning initiatives within TII, commented on the project: “This project has been an opportunity to train our students for their future as providers of accessible communication formats for museums. It has also served to add value to our cultural environment, and to take academic work into the real world. ”

Noor El Taweel, a student involved in the project, noted: “The most exciting part of this project has been learning about human diversity and seeing that we can contribute towards making society more inclusive.”

Dr. Neves and students from the MAAT program also supported the Doha Film Institute’s efforts towards accessibility and inclusion. As part of the Ajyal Youth Film Festival, the organizations worked together to hold the region’s first, inclusive cinematic experience on December 3rd, a “transadapted” version of the of Al Rayyan Productions animated short, Hero and the Message. Designed to suit audiences with different abilities, visually impaired audience members were able to view the film through sound alone, and hearing-impaired audience members benefitted from subtitles enriched with information about sound effects and music and sign language interpreting.  The audio description and subtitling for the film was provided by TII’s students under the supervision and guidance of the MAAT program professors.

Tii is currently accepting applications to its MA in Audiovisual Translation’s fall 2016 intake, in addition to a variety of other programs.

General Ar

General Arabic

PSC Arabic

PSC Arabic

LC Arabic

LC Arabic

PSR Arabic

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